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Egyptian SlaveImage and background courtesy of Maryam's Mystic Garden

The Cosmetic and Perfume Practices of the Ancient Egyptians: Part 3-The Recipes

by Aimee Bovare

printed at with permission by Copyright 1998 © NOT TO BE COPIED IN ANY MANNER OR MEDIUM TANGIBLE OR INTANGIBLE.

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"Happy is he whose craft is that of a perfume maker."- (Babylon- Kiddushin vs. 82B) In extracting the essence of a plant whether it be for its aromatic quality or its natural oils three basic methods were employed by ancient perfume masters. The first method used was pressing. First, the plant or fruit was crushed in a basin. The material was then placed in a clothe which was then wrung out to release its liquid essence. Likely, a great deal of plant material remained in the resulting extraction with this early method.

The second method is commonly known as "enfleurage" and is a practice that was widely used in 19th century Europe and still used today by some cultures. This was a process of cold steeping and most most effective when trying to attain the aroma of delicate florals such as rose. With this method the petals or plant material was place on a layer of fat (likely animal fat) and pressed between two boards for a time to allow their aroma to be absorbed. The old petals were then removed and replaced by fresh ones and this process was repeated continually until the fat possessed the desired strength of scent from the plant. This method was not suitable for many plants for obvious reasons, but it was a successful way to "imprison" more volatile essences for use in further recipes.

Blue Lotus

The third method was one used more as the craft of perfumery itself progressed in ancient times and was a hot steeping process. Similar to what we would term now as a "hot infusion" this method called for the maceration of the plant material in oil (commonly olive oil) which was then heated to about 65 degrees celcius in an ancient style of "bain marie" or double boiler. With this approach, the steaming water of the double boiler would gently heat the oil without the fragile plant material coming into direct contact with any high heat that could potentially evaporate the subtle essences so desired by the perfumer. Upon reaching the proper temperature, the material was then left to "steep" for a time and finally, the original plant materials were replaced with new ones and the whole process was repeated until the oil possessed the aroma of the plants employed. Often with this third method, and most particularly if a naturally strong smelling oil like olive oil was used as the medium of extraction; the oil itself was first "washed" or rendered with wine. Rendering the oil first would reduce its perhaps less virtuous qualities to make it more suitable for perfumery purposes.

A Modern Recipe for Rendering Vegetable Fat or Lard (Adapted from a recipe by herbalist Christopher Hedly(8))

Remove the vegetable lard from its container. Put it into a pan with twice its volume of sweet wine (port or claret may be quite suitable for this...). Heat the whole gently until the wine evaporates; as it does so, its sweeter scent impregnates the vegetable fat. Take care not to allow any scorching or burning of the fat as this will ruin the preparation. Watch closely through the rendering / heating process and when the wine is clearly evaporated, remove from heat, allow the fat to cool then store in a closed container.

Perfumed Recipes

*Authors note: Please be aware that my own recipes as given below utilize modern ingredients and methods which greatly simplifies the lengthy and complex processes used by the Ancient Egyptians. The drawback of course is that these modern recipes will not duplicate the original and authentic Egyptian methods however, they will at least partially resemble the pleasing and unusual aromas resulting from them.

Scent In the Sanctuary- Temple Aromatics Royal couple in a garden

Manniche explains that for the ancient Egyptians the temple was a three dimensional representation of the world. (9) It was designed to create remembrance of the Gods and was of course a central focus for worship. Likewise, for the Pharoah as ruler of the nation, the temple rituals were even more important as they established the link between heaven and earth; of which the Pharoah himself acted as intermediary. Statues were important temple features and the ancient Egyptians believed (as did many cultures actually) that the spirit of the God or Goddess represented in the statue resided therein. For this reason, purification of the temple environment was not only observed, but fragrant offerings were made to the "Living Gods" themselves on a daily basis.

"...When they get up they instantly worship by burning incense of resin. Thus they purify the air with the secretion and revive the spirit which is inbred with the body and which has become enervated, the smell of resin having something violent and disturbing about it. Again, at noon when they percieve that the sun draws up by force from the earth a very large and heavy exhalation and mingles it with the air, they burn incense of myrhh; for its heat loosens and disintegrates the turbid and muddy mass which gathers in the atmosphere...Aristotle says that the fragrant breathes of perfumes, flowers and meadows are no less conducive to health than to pleasure, in that they spread softly with warmth and mildness through the brain which is by nature cold and congealed."-Plutarch (10)

Scents were also a means of communicating with the divine; in fact, by its very nature and evanescence, scent was believed by the ancients to have come from the Gods themselves and therefore possessed spiritual or "magical" powers. Many scents were renowned for their magical properties in ancient Egypt as well as later on such as mandrake, lotus, poppy, and artemisia. For ritual worship, scent was employed in all three forms; in "smoke" that is incense, in oil, and unguent. As mentioned in the introductory materials, by the time of Ptolemaic Egypt, scents became important enough to inscribe on temple walls; the most famous inscriptions being those found at the Temple of Horus at Edfu. It has been noted by Egyptologists as well as later classical writers that there existed a book called "The Book of Unguents" or as called by Roman writers, "Cleopatra Gynaeciarum Libri" which was often quoted or referred to. This book has not survived time as far as is known but, many of the recipes we know of appeared to have been included in this ancient text by the reference made to it. Further, this book was believed to have been written by the most famous of the Ptolemies, Cleopatra VII, known to this day for her lavish use of scents and perfumes.

Of the recipes included at the Temple at Edfu the most sacred are called "the Seven Sacred Oils" which are given as follows with a basic review of their ingredients (11,12):

Festival Oil- fresh and dried frankincense, fir seeds, and other aromatics. Hekenu- nedjem, wood pitch, acacia, fresh and dry frankincense, and others. Sefet- a fir seed based oil and unidentified ingredients. Nesmen (Nekhemet)- wood pitch and pine with other aromatics. Tewat (Tua)- similar to festival with other resins and herbs added. Best Cedar Oil- nedjem, lotus, white frankincense. Best Libyan Oil- wood pitch and other unidentified flowers.

Two additions to this list were noted later and included also Madjet Oil and Moringa Oil. Manniche states that in fact, the actual list of "sacred" oils totals 10. These seven sacred oils were not always exactly oils however, many were more paste or unguent varieties. Compositions for a few of these particularly special preparations were given in Manniches work, but most were far too impractical to try to reproduce today. However, I have touched on some of these preparations to give an idea of how complex they were, and offered one or two ideas on a modern variety of my own making. Hekenu oil was one of the seven oils given much attention by Egyptian researchers because it took almost a full solar year to complete this one perfume. So you can imagine the time consuming processes involved. The curious thing about Hekenu Oil was its inclusion of a most enigmatic ingredient referred to as "nedjem" which to this day is up for debate as various theories are set forth on what precise botancial this nedjem is. Some authorities liken it to carob while others to the acacia which was native to Egypt in ancient times. Yet the whole recipe is based upon the extracted pulp of the seeds of this mysterious plant. The basic ingredients for Hekenu have been given above.

Another of the seven addressed by Manniche is called Madjet, one of the later additions to the original sacred seven. It was, as all perfumes were in their most earliest form, used for funerary rites but over time became a daily offering at the temples. There were two varieties Manniche refers to, one for everyday and one for special occasions. It appears they both were basically composed of the same materials which included the enigmatic "nedjem" mentioned earlier, lotus, and francincense as well as pine resin and kernals, cyperus grass, juniper, cinnamon, and "antiu" which I liken to myrhh from what I have researched but is not authoritatively accepted as such. The whole recipe was based on animal fat as a base and theoretically took nearly two years to complete as the animal had to be ritually prepared for one year before it was slaughtered, then another whole year had to pass for the storage of the fat of the animal itself which was kept sealed up in a special room for its later use. Once all was in place, the next step was to add wine macerated aromatics to the animal fat and let it meld. Then the wine was discarded and the soaked herbs and fat were boiled together. The resulting mix was then dyed with "nest" which is believed to have been al-khanna to impart to it a rich red color. The result was a fragrant and red perfume paste.

My Version of Madjet with Modern Day Additions:

In my own making of Madjet oil I have included ingredients not used in the original recipe as well as my own methods of process. This is due to the fact that there are ingredients called for not as yet rendered with a modern day equivalent and so I added items that I feel impart a similar aromatic quality. My goal in offering these modern versions is not so as to replicate the authentic methods as this would be very impractical, but to simulate the unusual fragrances resulting from the botanicals used.

For this recipe you will need 4 oz. of olive oil, 1 oz. of avocado oil, about 2 tablespoons worth of beeswax, one cup of sweet red wine, 1 cup of sweet raisins. For herbal matter you will need 2 cinnamon sticks broken up, 2 tablespoons juniper berries lightly crushed, and 2 tablespoons of myrhh resin. For essential oils you will need cinnamon leaf or preferably cassia, lemon grass, hemlock, juniper, fir needle or better yet- cedar; also, rosewood and myrhh.

There are two processes involved. First, you will gently heat the raisins in the wine just until it reaches very warm but not boiling, (about 3 minutes). Then strain them and let them dry a bit so that they are not totally wet through. Then, take the raisins and put them in a non-aluminum pan with the olive oil and bring to high heat. Do not boil to scorch them but get it hot enough to help facilitate their essence being imparted to the oil. Once hot, remove remove the raisins and add the rest of the plant material mentioned. Heat up again so that the herbs warm and then remove from heat, pour all - herbs included into a glass jar and cover. Let this steep about 2 weeks. Once the infusion is complete, strain off the herbs and melt the beeswax on medium heat also in a non-aluminum pan and then add the olive oil infusion as well as the avocado oil. Let warm so that all is melded together and once it is combined and liquid, remove from heat. Let this cool so that the oils and wax are not hot yet still retain a liquid state. You do not want it to solidify at this point and if it start to do that just put the whole thing back on the heat long enough to bring it back down to a liquid. At this point the oils and wax should be warm but NOT HOT. Now you can add in the essential oils as follows: 10 drops cassia, 5 drops lemongrass, 8 drops juniper, 8 drops hemlock, 8 drops pine or cedar, 8 drops rosewood, and last 8 drops myrhh. You may want to increase or add more of each to your own liking. The whole should still be liquid and now pour into any wide mouth jar or container or slip tin and you have Madjet.

To color this by the way - you will first need to make an infusion ofNefertem seen with lotus ascending from the top of his head is considered a 'god of perfume' alkanet in oil such as grapeseed or sweet almond. You can heat the oil a bit, add the alkanet and allow that to steep for the same 2 week period as the other part of the recipe given. Add the alkanet infusion before adding the essential oils. Bear in mind that the more oil you add, more wax is needed to keep the resulting product thick like a paste or unguent. Many oils and unguents were also considered sacred in their own right but not included in the list (obviously) of the "Seven Sacred Oils". One of note was called "Secret Min Unguent" and was dedicated to the worship of the God Min-Amun. This recipe called for sweet flag, pine kernals, juniper and other obscure herbs not yet identified. This recipe was unique in that it also called for the addition of minerals such as lapis, carnelian, red jasper, turquoise, gold and silver. I have prepared some things with mineral additions and although a pricy thing to do today, they do make for a very colorful and exotic preparation! The most renowned of the perfume recipes without doubt however, was that of the "Kyphi" perfume still known and made today; albeit with many different recipes being used. Interestingly, Kyphi was the one aromatic perfume that was entirely based on wine, honey and fruits and included no fats or oils in its preparation.


Manniche clarifies that the actual Egyptian word for this perfume was "kapet"; the word kyphi itself was a latin rendering from a Greek translation. The original recipe for kyphi was given on the walls of the Temple at Edfu. The following is one rendered from the original Egytian version as taken from Joann Fletcher's text. (13)

"Take 9.5 oz. of sweet flag, aromatic rush, pistacia resin, cinnamon, mint, aspalathos and grind together then sift and reserve the resulting powder. Take 9.5 oz. of ground juniper berries, cyperus grass, [?], [?] (unidentified) and add this and the powdered herbs to twice the measure of sweet wine and let set overnight. Seperate the wine soaked powder and herbs and drain off any excess liquid. Take 4 lb. raisin and 5 lb wine and and grind together. Sieve this and put in a pot with the earlier mixture. Let sit together 5 days. Mix 2.5 lb. of frankincense and 3 lb. honey and boil until thick and reduced by 1/5th its volume. Mix this honey mixture with the first herbal mixture. Let this sit another 5 days. Lastly add 2.5 lb of ground myrhh. This is kyphi."

Fletcher offers a modern day version of kyphi which has been revised slightly for convenience here. (14)

"Take 3 oz. tincture of bullrushes, 1 bottle red wine, 8 oz. chopped raisin, 2 oz. myrhh, 2 oz. juniper berry, 1 oz. more myrhh blended with 2 oz. frankincense, 2 oz. ground orris, 1 oz. lemongrass or lemon scented geranium. Put all together in large screw top container and let meld 5 days. Strain the residual wine and reserve. Mix the soaked herbs with 6 oz. of honey and 2 oz. of crushed frankincense and heat until thick. Add back in the reserved wine liquid, bottle and store."

An easy aromatherapy version of Kyphi Perfume

Take 4 oz. unprocessed thick honey (it is solid like a cream and not clear); melt this in a pan with 1 tablespoon of wine, let the wine evaporate out by simmering low. Then add 1 tablespoon sweet almond oil and 1 tablespoon beeswax. Let all melt and liquify then add 1 tsp. ground orris, 1 tsp. mastic, and 1 tsp. each frankincense and myrhh. Remove from heat and let cool a bit so it is not extremely hot but still warm and liquid and add the following essential oils by drop count:

8-cassia, 6-lemongrass, 4-geranium, 5-cardomom, 6 drop each juniper, frankincense, myrhh, 10 drops rosewood. Pour into wide mouth jar and seal. It will remain thick and creamy.

Famous Egyptian Perfumes

Compound Oils

There were several famous oils known to be used throughout ancient Egypt. They are still recognized and some are produced today in modern renditions based on the early formulas. Unfortunately, many of these compound perfumes (containing several processes and ingredients) include material yet unidentified by Egyptologists and are near impossible to reproduce accurately. The following list includes the more notable varieties of compound perfumes; some that are given following have modern alternatives for making a composition similar to that of the orginal using modern ingredients.

The Egyptian- The most famed of the perfume oils made predominantly with cinnamon and myrhh. It has been confused with another popular scent known as "Mendesian" but apparently it is in fact its own unique preparation hence, they are not one and the same thing.

Mendesian- Similar to the Egyptian but made with balanos oil infused with wine soaked herbs like myrhh, resins, and cinnamon. Later recipes used almond oil.

A Modern Day Mendesian Oil

Take 4 oz. sweet almond oil and heat with ground myrhh, cinnamon and cardomom. Add to it laudanum and benzoin resins. Let simmer about 1 hour gently over low heat then remove. Strain out the herbal matter (note that some particles will remain here) and add essential oils to the cooled oil as follows by drop count:

5- wormwood (artemisia absinthium), 8 ea. cassia, cedar and myrhh. Pour into bottle and stop shut.

Metopion- Also called galbanum perfume was a heavy resinous scent that had myrhh overtones. Dioscorides version called for almost a dozen different ingredients including omphacium, the thick green oil from unripe olives discussed earlier. The following is a modern day version using essential oils:

A Modern Day Metopian

In 1 oz. sweet wine add 1 tsp. peru balsam, 1 tsp. galbanum resin and put over heat and let simmer until reduced by half. In a non-aluminum pan melt 2 tsp. beeswax with 2.5 oz. sweet almond oil. Add the balsam wine mixture and 2 tablespoons honey. Let all meld and liquify and let cook over low heat until well incorporated. Remove from heat, allow to cool a bit and add essential oils as follows by drop count:

10-cardomom, 8-bitter almond, 10-sweet flag, 12-myrhh. Incorporate and pour while still liquid into a container where it will thicken and solidify.

Susinum- Also called "Susinon" it was the famous lily perfume that called for no less than 2,000 lilies by some accounts. Dioscorides recipe in addition to the lilies required balanos oil, myrhh, sweet flag, cardomom, iris, wine, cinnamon and honey.

Cyprinum- Henna perfume as presently defined although there is some debate on this. Henna flowers themselves are rather fragrant and they were often macerated in oil. Pliny however records using the berries or seeds rather than the flowers. Other ingredients included olive oil, cardomom and southernwood. A simple infusion of the flowers in oil done repeatedly could produce a simple henna fragrance.

Sampsuchinon- Another famous compound perfume based on sweet marjoram. Some authorities also include oregano oil as a possible ingredient. Both Dioscorides and Pliny recorded their own versions that had numerous other ingredients added as well. This perfume is believed to be dedicated to the crocodile God Sobek.

Joann Fletcher records a modern version based on the original in her text which calls for thyme, cinnamon, southernwood, nasturtium and myrtle. She recommends grinding these and the marjoram together than simmering in almond oil and honey to make a paste.

A Modern Day Sampsuchinon:

In my recipe I use artemisia absinthium which is very similar to southernwood and also in the artemisa family.

Take 1 tablespoon honey and 1 oz. sweet almond oil. Simmer this with 2 tablespoon ground orris root. When the mixture is liquid remove from heat and add essential oils as follows by drop count unless otherwise noted:

1/2 teaspoon peru balsam, 6-cedar, 6-cassia, 6-wormwood, 4-sweet flag, 10-marjoram, 4-myrtle.

Simple Perfume Oils:

Many oils were prepared also using simple infusion methods. These included oils of Poppyrose, sage, lotus, lily, fenugreek, cinnamon, cumin and juniper among others. Today, these are all available in a much more potent essential oil form. The essential oils can be added by drop to a carrier oil such as grapeseed or sweet almond to make an aromotic simple perfume oil.

To Make A Simple Infusion:

Infusions can be made both hot or cold in similar fasion. A cold infusion is macerating about 3 ounces dried plant matter to a pint of oil and letting it "steep" about 3 weeks. A hot infusion is the same proportions but placing the herb and oil in a pan and simmering at lowest heat about 3 hours. When complete- strain out the herbs and bottle the oil. See this link for more on INFUSIONS.

Additional Recipes

The recipes belowI have created and prepared myself and have been inspired by my own research on ancient Egyptian practices among other related studies. To see a complete review of various perfumes as well as cosmetic recipes you can make for yourself, please contact me about getting a copy of my self published working manual for cosmetic applications that you can purchase from me directly and will be available after June 2002.

A personal perfume:

This is a perfume I make for myself in various ways. It suits my scorpio self quite well and contains many aromatic oils.

Blend in a glass bowl 2 oz. almond oil, 1 and 1/2 oz. avocado oil, and 1/3 oz. wheat germ oil (approximate). Avocado oil can be cloudy especially at cooler temperatures so you may want to gently heat it first to clarify it before adding. To the mixed oils add the following essentials oils by drop count:

10-cassia, 8-cinnamon leaf, 8-rosewood, 8-cedar, 6-hemlock, 8-ylang, 4-nutmeg, 4-sweet orange, 6 patchouli, 8-rose absolute or attar. Funnel into a bottle and let sit for at least 1 week before use.

A lovely unguent: Take 2 tablespoons beeswax and melt in a non-aluminum pan. Add to this 1 tablespoon cocoa butter, 2 oz. almond oil, and 1 oz. olive oil. Heat until all is liquified but do not boil or overcook- you simply want everything melted and blended. Remove from heat and allow to cool down but not to the point it starts to solidify. This is an important step because if you add delicate and volatile essential oils to a hot base they will quickly evaporate out which weakens their strength and aromatic qualities. Once cooler but still a warm liquid add to this 16 drops patchouli, 4 drops hemlock, and 20 drops lavender. You may desire to add more of whatever to your own liking. Pour into a container and it will solidify. Bear in mind once it is cold and you attempt to smell it straight from the container you may think there is no scent. This is not so. Take some and apply to your wrists, neck or anywhere for that matter and you will discover the pungent fragrance is suspended in the solid matter and released upon contact with the warm skin of the body.

A witches perfume: This perfume must be started on the eve of the new moon and will be finished on the day of the full moon. It possesses strong psychic energy which will open a greater intuitive knowing and wisdom. Hence, the term "witches" perfume to connotate the wisdom that all witches possess.

You will need to gather to prepare this recipe enough opium poppy petals and seeds to equal a four ounce weight, 1 vanilla bean, 1/2 oz. dragons blood resin (see herbal information previously about this resin), 1 oz. ea. frankincense and myrhh resin, 1 oz. dried mugwort, 3 crushed whole nutmegs, and one crushed cinnamon stick. Place these in a blend of 3 oz. castor and 3 oz.sweet almond oil- a total of about 6 oz. oil, perhaps you may want to add a tad more. Let this infuse covered on a window that gets moonlight through to the eve of the next full moon. (About 28 days or so usually.) The day of the full moon, strain out the herbs and add the following essential oils as given by drop count:

8-lemongrass, 6-balsam, 8-benzoin resin, 6-sweet orange, 6-bitter almond, 9-wormwood (artemisia absinthium), 7-hemlock, 5-juniper, 6-cassia, 9-patchouli, and 15 drops rose attar or absolute.

If you have access to any moon flowers and datura flowers that you can fresh pick your self, you can make a seperate infusion of these in a bit of almond oil and add this in before the essential oil. However, you must pick them yourself at dusk or evening hours, place them in the oil and remove early the next morning or anytime after midnight. Repeating this process will result in a stronger scented oil. These flowers are gorgeous but only are fragrant in the evening. During the day they can actually smell foul so do be sure you can select these blooms yourself at the proper times.

For a medicine man: I prepared this for a very old and very wise "nagual" from the Yaqui tribe several years ago. It was very beautiful and potent (and well received). It is a solid variety of perfume that is suitable for wearing and anointing.

You will need to get salvia apiana, (white sage) 4 tablespoons crushed, 1 oz. each garden sage, marjoram and orris root and infuse in about 4 oz. of oil. If you want to use a tad more herbs then add them how you see fit. Let this infuse for 4 weeks. Strain out all the herb. In a non-aluminum pan melt 2 teaspoons beeswax and 2 teaspoons cocoa butter and add the infused oil. Heat until all is melted an liquid. Remove from heat and let cool a bit so it is not extremely hot but still warm and liquid. Then add the essential oils given by drop count:

8-sage officinalis, 4-geranium, 10-clary sage, 7-petit grain, 4-black pepper, 4-cassia, 8-vetivert, 4-bergamot or neroli, 4-ylang, 8-rosewood, 8-cedar, 9-sandalwood, 12 rose attar or absolute.

A special hair oil:

This oil is especially suited to hair and is best applied warm as a hot oil treatment. It must be infused at least one month for best results on the hair.

You will need a sterile clear glass wine bottle or other similar bottle of same size. You will need the following dried herbs: 4 each dried lavender stems with flowers, 4 dried rosemary sprigs, a small handful of fresh pine needle, and 3 sprigs of dried sage. Slide these whole intoSpikenard the bottle. Take enough jojoba oil and pour into the bottle to reach a bit more than half way. Add wheat germ oil in to fill the bottle about 3/4 full. Add a tablespoon of crushed juniper berries. Add essential oils given by drop right into the bottle as follows:

10-rosemary, 8-clary sage, 8-juniper, 10-spikenard, 12-lavender. Stop the bottle and shake vigorously. Let infuse at least one month and shake the bottle again in the meanwhile as well. When the infusion is complete the herbs can simply remain in the bottle and you pour out some of the seasoned oil to apply to hair as an oil treatment. Leave treatment on at least 30 minutes or overnight if you can, then wash out. With repeated use it will feed, strengthen and nourish the hair and scalp beautifully.

An excellent exfoliating face mask:

Using a coffee grinder grind up about 1/4 cup steel cut oats, 3 tablespoons each dried lavender and rose petal and 1 tablespoon elder flowers. Blend all together and store in a sealed glass jar. (You can make larger amounts if you like as well since the mask itself is done on the spot.) When you want to apply the mask, simply mix the herb/oat blend with warmed milk and honey until it forms a paste and apply this to clean skin. Let remain at least 30 minutes then rinse off. You will love how this works on your skin!

Closing Remarks, Resources, Notations and References For Further Study

The process of perfumery, and particularly that as practiced by the ancient Egyptians, is a vast and complex subject of which this material offers only a brief overview in comparison to the numerous new finds, new ideas, and material regarding this area of study. The goal of this author was to present some solid botanical information as reference as well as provide some recipes and resources for those interested in perfumery and cosmetic arts from an herbal perspective. This material was in no way intended to be scholarly oriented rather, set forth for the personal student so as to find out more information.

The author of this feature is indebted to the many renowned Egyptologists whose work she has studied as well as many other notable authors. Please see the following notations as well as the extensive RESOURCES listings for this feature that provides many, many excellent texts for further study.

As mentioned in the body of this portion of the feature (see additional recipes above), the author has a manual of cosmetic and perfume applications which will be available for purchasing direct after June 2002, (and eventually online as well). Also, the author is a practitioner of herbal arts and can prepare custom herbal scents based upon ancient aromas and methods. To obtain either the writtens materials or product services described contact: AUTHOR. For Excellent Herbal Supplies and Raw Materials- See:

Mountain Rose Herbs

The best place for RAW herbal materials for making remedies and cosmetic applications. Most all certified organic. Excellent quality essentials for perfumery as well as exotic butters and sundries.

For Excellent Fragrances, Bulk Oils and Soaping Materials- See:

Excellent resources for bulk vegetable oils for soap crafting and other crafts. Fabulous fragrance oils for crafting which is handy for those not available or simply to difficult to obtain essential oils. Supplies, texts and recipes also!

Organic Cosmetics For Those Not Interested In Crafting- See:

Organic Essentials

Note: For more information contact Cindy Anastasio. See left side bar of Organic Essentials site for many EXCELLENT organically made personal care tems, items for natural and chemical free cleaning of home as well as herbal supplements.

Online Resources: The Egyptian Museum


Galbanum: Aromatic Treasure Of Egypt

The Essence of Ancient Egypt

Herbs Used For Perfumes From the African Continent

To Make Kyphi Incense

Perfumes in Ancient Egypt

The Art of Ancient Egyptian Perfumery

For Textual References See: Resources Vol.I / Issue 1

Notations: (For more detail see also: Resources) 1- "Perfumes and Cosmetics In the Ancient World" by Mikhal Dyagi-Medeles; Published by Israel Museum. 4- Ibid. 11- Ibid.

2- "Sacred Luxuries..." by Lise Manniche, Werner Forman; Published by Cornell University Press; 1999. 3- Ibid. 9- Ibid. 12- Ibid.

5- "Oils and Perfumes of Ancient Egypt" by Joann Fletcher; Published by Harry Abrams, NY; 1999. 8- Ibid. 13- Ibid. 14- Ibid.

6- "Fragrant Past" by Giuseppe Donato Monique Seefried (Editor); Published by Emery University Museum, 1989.

7- "An Ancient Egyptian Herbal" by Lise Manniche; Published by University of Texas Press with The British Museum Press; 1993. 15- Ibid.

10- "Plutarch's De Idide et Osirise" by J. Gwyn Griffiths; Published by University of Wales; 1970. *reference noted in Manniche, "Sacred Luxuries" see above.[re: Plutarch's observations on Ancient Egypt excerpted from text.)

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