Professional At Home Tooth Whitening System Professionals, movie stars and anyone who cares about the quality of their smile need to read further. 100% Guaranteed. Maximum Teeth Whitening (MTWT) delivers the exact same professional tooth whitening system (ingredients and methodology) dentists use for their patients who want the convenience and affordability of at home teeth whitening.


Iran: Generation Gap Widening As Conservatives Try To Enforce Islamic Social Codes

By Golnaz Esfandiari, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty

Shahnameh Baysunqur
Shahnameh Baysunqur
Buy this Art Print at

It's hard to have fun in Iran -- that is, if you're one the more than 45 million people under the age of 35 looking for casual ways to socialize with members of the opposite sex. Conservative authorities in the Islamic Republic are taking steps to shut down Western-style establishments that proved popular gathering places for young Iranians. But social experts say such moves may only end up widening the value gap between conservatives and Iran's young majority.

Prague, 9 December 2023 (RFE/RL) -- Until recently, Sormeh, a single Iranian woman in her 20s, was a regular patron at Apachi, a Western-style restaurant in Tehran that was one of the few public places where young men and women were able to gather and discreetly socialize.

But last week, Apachi and three other restaurants were shut down by conservative authorities for failing to observe Islamic codes of behavior. Sormeh told Radio Farda it is getting harder and harder to find places to spend a casual evening out in the Iranian capital.

Iran's Islamic laws put strict limitations on the places and circumstances in which young people can conduct their social lives, and contact between unmarried couples is prohibited. Although the Islamic Republic has seen a gradual liberalization under the tenure of President Mohammad Khatami, the Western-style cafes and fast-food restaurants offering young Iranians a rare opportunity to gather are coming under increasing scrutiny from the country's conservatives. Police are free to interrupt even private gatherings, and can punish partygoers for dancing or drinking alcohol.


In the case of Apachi, Sormeh says the restaurant may have drawn the ire of the regime for failing to enforce strict Islamic dress codes. "I think one of the reasons why it was shut down is that young people didn't follow the kind of 'hejab' [dress code] that is required by the Islamic Republic regime," she said.

Wearing headscarves and long, smocklike coats is compulsory for Iranian women, who according to Islamic law must cover their hair and body whenever they are in public places. But increasingly, young women are fighting back, wearing shorter coats and make-up, and pushing back their headscarves to show their hair.

Social analysts say the regime is fighting a losing battle in trying to control the lives of young Iranians, who make up 70 percent of the population and who have grown disillusioned with the Islamic values of conservatives in the government. Iran's Youth Organization recently warned of a rise in drug use and social rebellion among the country's young people.

Amanollah Gharayi Moghadam, a sociology professor in Tehran, says much of this behavior is spurred by the strict social limitations imposed by conservative authorities. "All the research shows that in every aspect, these kinds of restrictions have made [young Iranians] more pessimistic, rebellious, and arrogant," he said. "It has done a lot of mental and psychological damage to young people, and has the direct effect of causing them to disagree with the actions of us elders."

The gap is quickly widening between the Islamic values promoted by Iran's conservative rulers and the demands of Iran's 35-and-unders. Many young Iranians have no interest in politics or tradition. Instead, they just want more social freedom -- freedom of expression, freedom to meet members of the opposite sex, and freedom to listen to the music of their choice.

Gharayi Moghadam says the young generations are also losing touch with Islam. "Our findings show that our youth have become pessimistic in every aspect. [The authorities] have even pushed young people to become pessimistic about religion, to a certain degree," he said.

Editorials in Iran's reformist newspapers often warn the growing disillusionment of Iran's young people poses a serious potential threat to the country's political stability. Gharayi Moghadam says it is time for authorities to address the concerns of the country's youth rather than enforcing austere restrictions that may have outlived their effectiveness.

In the meantime, however, young Iranians may continue to have difficulty forging a social life -- particularly in the capital Tehran, where the newly elected conservative mayor has already shut down several cultural centers and is believed to be behind last week's restaurant closings as well.

(Farin Assemi of Radio Farda contributed to this report.)

Copyright © 2003 RFE/RL, Inc. Reprinted with the permission of Radio Free Europe/ Radio Liberty, 1201 Connecticut Ave., N.W. Washington DC 20036. recommends the following books from



forum has brand new forum and chat facilities. Find out what others around the globe think about beauty in cultures past and present here.


3D Hairstyle Makeover Software - Click to Try featured book

all featured books have been read by a member of the team

Awakening BeautyAnthony Napoleon, the author of Awakening Beauty: An Illustrated Look at Mankind's Love and Hatred of Beauty, is a psychologist who has spent many years studying beauty and its impact upon both individuals and society. He has worked with both cosmetic surgery patients and beauty pageant contestants as well as conducting original research into the field. Awakening Beauty is an unprecedented exposé on the subject of beauty. It is both entertaining and thought provoking, a combination that is as unique as it is telling about the author's approach to the subject of this book. The reader is taken backstage into the worlds of beauty pageants, plastic surgery, trophy wives, murderous rage, wardrobe, makeup, Bill Clinton, the events of September Eleven and other provocative topics where beauty has had its effect. Awakening Beauty invites the reader into a world that is as interesting as it is frightening. Readers are transformed as the author shepherds them from their world into his unique perspective and expertise on beauty. Awakening Beauty includes over one hundred tantalizing photographs and illustrations. Awakening Beauty is a compendium of some of the most interesting facts in print. The subject matter of the book along with the author's unique approach to it makes this book a "must read." Get ready to re-think everything you thought you knew about beautiful women and physical attractiveness.

translate this site

Beauty Coupons

Luisa New York-Handmade Soap and Aromatherapy

Best Los Angeles Hair Makeovers

Diamond Jewelry

Beauty Schools Directory

Columbia House DVD Club

A World of Perfumes and Cosmetics

skin care cosmetics Discount Perfume Online Store

Natural Skin Care

Click Here To Use the World-First Face Shape Wizard For Free

Hair Styles, Cuts, and Do's For an unbelievable selection of hair styles at an incredibly low price visit: Hair Styles, Cuts, and Do's Our hair styles gallery contains 3,950 new hair styles, hair cuts, and hair dos for you to choose from. Each new hair styles photo is thumbnailed for fast and easy viewing. Hair Styles, Cuts, and Do's